We use the internet for everyday needs. And to keep ourselves updated with technology, we follow various types of online magazines and technology blogs. But once we have to think about how we are visiting online blogs or web pages, how do they work, or how they help us?
Now we will see how the web server works and how web pages help us?
How are you coming to this blog, now you're reading this blog? The simple answer is, you have turned the net on your mobile or computer, and then you have taken the help of any program or software that is known as the web browser. Such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Safari. Then you press the enter button by entering a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) such as https://toshost.com and in the browser address bar. But the question is how do you open the webpage, by typing the URL and pressing the Enter button?
In short, when you type the URL in the browser and press the Enter button, your browser communicates with the computer that has this webpage, the page that it needs. Then the server sends this webpage on your computer and your internet browser show it in front of you. Some systems work to communicate with both the client and the server. We will see how the systems work primarily, but before that, we need to know some things.
The internet term is very familiar to us. There are many people in the present world who do not sleep properly or fall asleep on the Internet. Actually, what is internet?
The world's largest number of computers connect themselves through various types of local networks. These networks of local computers are then connected to another network and the network is the Internet. Typically, a computer located in the home phone communicates with an ISP (Internet Service Provider) or Internet service provider and connects it to the Internet through its ISP. The office computers first connection between the LAN (Local Area Network). Then, this LAN is connected to a local ISP and takes advantage of the Internet. We usually send about 56,000 bits of data every second to the Internet that we use on the Internet through the modem. And if we use the Internet via LAN in the office, if it is high speed, then send about 1.5 million bits per second. However, the LAN connected to a PC that communicates with the ISP, the ISP is again connected to the larger ISP. In the continuation of the ISP, the largest ISP of any country or region can be found to be connected to a fiber optic backbone. Such backbones are associated with one of the highest speed optical fiber (located under the sea) or satellites. And in this way, computers located on both ends of the world, communicate with each other through the Internet.
Client and Server
In all the connected computers with internet can be divided into two categories. Which is the server computer and the other is the client computer. The server provides services, and the client receives services. But it is also possible that a computer is serving and taking it together. There is a variety of software on a server computer, which helps him to finish special kind of work quickly. For example, the e-mail server makes a computer compatible with e-mail. When you send an e-mail to a friend via Gmail (or any e-mail server), your e-mail goes through several servers to your friend's computer and each server uses its e-mail server software in this task.
IP Address (Internet Protocol Address)
Every computer connected to the Internet has a specific and unique number, however, once the connection is disconnected, this number changes, and this is called an IP address or Internet Protocol address. Normally, the IP address of the server does not change. Because gradually many computers continue to run the main server, so the server does not get disconnected from the Internet when there is no reason for it. However, when a PC is connected to the Internet via an Internet to an ISP, the ISP gives him an IP address, which remains unchanged until the internet connection is disconnected. If you have an internet connection to view the IP address in the Windows operating system, go to Command Prompt and type “ipconfig” and press enter, you will see your IP address. To know more about IP address, visit the link below,
As a domain name, we understand the name of an organization, by entering the name of the browser address bar and pressing Enter, we can see the organization's webpage. For example, 'TosHost' is an organization and its domain name is https://toshost.com. Above we know about IP address, the domain name is actually used instead of this IP address. There are thousands of web servers in the world, and all of these servers IP address are very unusual to keep in our memory. So, the domain name system, which displays the IP address in English. The domain name system has been created for this, which displays the IP address in the English language.
A webpage address consists of 3 things.
- Regulator Name (Hostname “www”)
- Organization Name (Domain Name “Toshost”)
- Top Level Domain (.com)
A hostname is an optional part of a domain name. Any organization can give hostname according to its own will. "www," was widely used as a hostname. But its usage is now reduced. Although previously used as a hostname for WWW, many companies do not use it anymore, For example, https://toshost.com does not have a hostname before. Sometimes it's called as the third level domain name. The organization's name refers to the type of organization by its name. Such as '.com' company; 'Organization' with '.org'; '.edu' means 'education' and so on. When the organization's original name ('Toshost') is associated with its nature ('.com'), then the whole part (Toshost.com) is called the second-level domain name of the organization. The organization's second-level domain name is supplementary of IP address.
Domain Name Server (DNS)
DNS (Domain Name Servers) is a type of database that stores a list of reserved domain names backward each IP address. And this list is not stored on any Internet server, step-by-step across the globe. When you type a domain name in your browser's address bar and press Enter, a DNS server near you will change your domain name to the corresponding IP address and communicate with it. In this process, each networking operating system uses a software called DNS Resolver, which helps in finding the IP address.
For computers, a port is used in both cases. Such as:
Hardware port - behind the computer, where we connect the mouse, the keyboard, the printer, the hardware port.
Another port is created when programming. These ports are like an extension with IP address, which ensures certain services. Any server machine makes different ports for its different types of services. Clients usually contact a specified port of IP address. If the number of ports can be up to 0-65536. But the widely used ports use small numbers.
Below are some required port names and numbers are given.
- SSH (Secure Shell)
- FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
- Telnet 23
- TCPMUX (TCP Port Service Multiplexer)
- IMAP (Internet Massage Access Protocol )
- POP3 (Post Office Protocol Version 3)
- SMTP 25 (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
- WWW 80
If a port is not stored by the firewall, then it can be possible to communicate with the port at any time, if the server permits the computer. From here it is understood that the following steps work for a server computer if you search for a webpage and get it.
- Protocol (HTTP)
- Server Name (Toshost.com)
- File Name (contact.php)
Then your browser connects to a DNS server to convert 'toshost.com' to an IP address. Then, with the received IP address, the browser server establishes a communication system with the computer. This communication is usually installed on server computer port 80. After the connection is established, if you want this page to your browser server computer https://my.toshost.com/contact.php, the term 'Get Request' is a technical term for the browser asking for the server. And send "Get Request" to get the webpage from the browser server. The server then sends this page to the browser in the form of "HTML Text". Finally, your browser reads "HTML Text" and shows the page accordingly.